negative symptoms of schizophrenia
Negative symptoms represents an impairment of normal human emotional responses, processes and behaviors. Typically, they include symptoms such as
- effective blunting
- flattening, and
- a logia
percentage of patients having negative symptoms of schizophrenia
negative symptoms are prevalent. And it’s estimated that up to 60 percent of our patients will demonstrate negative symptoms at any point in time. However, persistent and primary negative symptoms are estimated to occur in up to about 25 percent of patients with schizophrenia.
Associations of negative symptoms of schizophrenia
Negative symptoms are associated with
- decreased quality of life
- increased functional disability
- increased burden of illness
- poor outcome.
Treatment options of negative symptoms of schizophrenia
Overall, unfortunately, negative symptoms respond less well to treatment. There are limited treatment options and no accepted standard of part of this may be related to the complex neurology of negative symptoms. Which build not only on the aspects of the dopamine hypothesis underpinning positive things, but also a dysfunctional disturbance of gabs and groups made pathways, network symptoms are also difficult to assess, and there are a number of new scales that are being developed that take into account our patient’s inner experience as well as aspects of motivation.
Studies about negative symptoms of schizophrenia
There are very few randomized control studies that examine specifically patients with prominent and persistent negative symptoms. Many of the studies have included quite varied populations and use different scales does difficult to be able to evaluate the results given the potential confounds most of the existing treatments to date have included either second generation anti psychotics. While the use of antidepressants in add on therapy, and there’s quite an extensive literature concerning both of these in terms of emerging treatment options,
There are a number of different classes of agents that are being actively researched. These include the
- nmda receptor
- function enhance agents such as soccer scene or the glycine reactive
- inhibitors such as Beethoven.
Then we have a class of metabolic glutinous energy receptor activators, including the mglur agents. The nicotine as tall coding receptor agonist represents a very new class of agents that are add on therapies. Finally, we have a variety of agents from a number of different classes, including the cyclist stimulants, and asked our system neurosteroid and 5 H T 3 receptor antagonists. Many of the studies with these agents are relatively small scale.
Open label and the large randomized control files have reportedly not replicated some of the findings of the earlier pilot studies in terms of the future, the unmet need, our patients with persistent negative symptoms of schizophrenia is unequivocal because of the complex neurobiology that underpins negative symptoms. Overall progress has actually been quite limited even for the agents that we have some positive data for.
It is difficult to know what their role in therapy will be, IE are they primary agents or they adjunctive treatments, are they to be used earlier or later in the course of the illness. There remain many questions in terms of the effective treatment of negative symptoms. Hopefully, this review provides a useful clinical summary of the data to date and more guide clinicians in terms of the current choices available to them.